Seasonal and Temporal Factors
The water level monitoring program should be structured to provide precise water
level measurements in a sufficient number of piezometers or wells at a sufficient frequency to
gauge both seasonal average flow directions and temporal fluctuations in ground water flow
directions ( 264.97(f)). The owner/operator should determine and assess seasonal/temporal,
natural, and artificially induced (e.g., off site production well pumping, agricultural use) short 
term and long term variations in ground water elevations, ground water flow patterns, and
ground water quality. Such factors that may influence ground water elevations and flow
Barometric effects;
Variations in precipitation and runoff/recharge rates;
On site or off site well pumping, recharge, and discharge;
Tidal processes or other intermittent natural variations (e.g., river stage);
Off site or on site construction, or changing land use patterns;
Off site or on site lagoons, ponds, or streams;
Deep well injection;
On site waste disposal practices; and
Other anthropogenic effects, such as a nearby passing train;
Ground water flow may exhibit significant seasonal variations. For example, in the
humid eastern regions of the United States, heads are generally highest in late winter or
spring and lowest in late summer or early autumn. However, short term processes may create
ground water flow patterns that are markedly different from ground water flow patterns
determined by seasonal averages. Such processes include changes in river stage, tides, and
storm events.
Changes in land use may affect ground water flow by altering recharge or discharge
patterns. Examples of such changes in land use patterns include the paving of recharge areas
or damming of waterways. Municipal, industrial, or agricultural off site or on site well
pumping may affect both the rate and direction of ground water flow. On site and off site
well pumping may be seasonal, or dependent on more complex water use patterns.
November 1992
4 46






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