require that all data be submitted in a computer readable form. If the level of site
characterization necessary to design a RCRA ground water monitoring program is sufficient,
it will be possible to obtain the information listed in the last column of the table. This
information ultimately will be used to develop a conceptual model of the site prior to
designing the ground water monitoring system.
At a minimum, the site investigation should always include direct methods of
determining site hydrogeology (e.g., subsurface borings, water level elevation measurements,
textural analysis of soil samples). Indirect methods (e.g., aerial photography), especially
geophysical methods (e.g., resistivity and seismic surveys), may provide valuable information
for planning direct field measurements. Information obtained by indirect methods also can be
used in conjunction with information obtained by direct techniques to interpolate geologic
data between points where direct measurements are made. Information gathered by indirect
methods alone will not provide the detailed information necessary for complete
characterization of a site, however. Conclusions drawn from indirect site investigation
methods (e.g., geophysical surveys, aerial photography) should be confirmed by, and
correlated with, direct measurements. Lithologic data obtained from cone penetrometer (CPT)
surveys should be compared with lithologic information obtained from adjacent
conventionally drilled and sampled boreholes to verify the CPT results. When geophysical
surveys are used to characterize a site, information from geophysical surveys should be used
in conjunction with other physical data both to verify the initial interpretations of the
geophysical methods and to provide constraints to remove some of the non uniqueness of the
geophysical data.
A site investigation should include characterization of:
The subsurface materials below the owner/operator's hazardous waste facility,
The lateral and vertical extent of the uppermost aquifer;
The lateral and vertical extents of upper and lower confining
The geology at the owner/operator's facility (e.g., stratigraphy,
lithology, structural setting); and
The chemical properties of the uppermost aquifer and its confining
layers relative to local ground water chemistry and hazardous wastes
managed at the facility, as it relates to the parameters specified in 40
CFR Part 265.
November 1992
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